Anarchy is a model of thought characterized by the defense of individual freedom of action in social, political and economic matters, in such a way that it supposes the need for structures of government and social control.
The ideological stance of anarchy predominantly establishes the dominance of chaos above all hierarchical or institutional rigor. That is, the non-need for a model of social control that annuls the freedom and predominance of the individual.
This theoretically posed situation has as its main result a power vacuum. In other words, there is a situation of total equality between all individuals within the social environment in which they live and coexist.
This happens because according to this argument, each human being is free and has the ability to function in his or her social environment.
In other words, freedom of a collective nature would prevail against a public power that would exercise control together with the monopoly of the use of force in a territory.
In this way, the coexistence and structuring of a society is achieved by inertia once the customs of a population are established over time. The basis for this must be a horizontal and not a vertical system based on hierarchical levels.
Historical evolution of the concept of anarchy
From the first philosophical positions (especially those of the thinkers of classical Greece) there have been nuances related to what was later called the anarchic theory.
Thus there has been a historical advance following the evolution of social changes and, therefore, of the different ideological and philosophical positions.
The result initially appeared with the first formally anarchist theories of the 18th century, which started from the premise of the non-need to propose social control through power structures.
In this sense, the movement known as anarchism laid the formal basis for this theory by applying it to practical reality: political, economic and model of society.
It also served as an idea that was directly opposed to capitalist theory and the emergence of a new social order product of the growth of the bourgeoisie. Although it is true that other authors have exposed the possibility of the existence of anarcho-capitalism. Criticisms of the latter are based on the fact that in anarcho-capitalism power structures are generated with capital.
Extension and social application of anarchy
Through anarchy, the natural state of things arises, outside of any imposed organization and proposing the elimination of social classes and all kinds of economic, political and social elites.
Through the historical evolution of doctrines of an anarchic nature and the experience in different peoples and civilizations, anarchism was given rise as an ideological model. This model has been adapted to multiple analyzes in recent centuries, such as anarcho-communism or anarcho-capitalism, among others.
Regardless of the practical applications of anarchy in economic policy,
Social and other types of ideological positions have been commonly associated with utopia.
Examples of this are branches such as communism or initial utopian socialism, closely linked
both to this type of ideal society approaches. The concept of the creation of communes or phalansteries are also adaptations in reality of this type of ideas for society.