Atheism is an ideological position or current that denies the existence of God, whatever religion he belongs to.
Atheism, de facto, denies the existence of God. He does not believe in the existence of an all-powerful and omnipresent supreme being who created the world and therefore guides the actions of humanity. Nor that when one dies he goes to an extraterrestrial place where, supposedly, he will achieve eternal peace.
In short, atheism claims that there is no God. But that does not mean that the atheist is against all religions, since there are non-theistic religions such as Buddhism. Although, in general, the atheist is against the religions themselves.
Etymologically, atheist comes from the Greek atheos and from latin atheus, meaning "denial of God." Since it is made up of theos (god), plus the prefix to, which denies.
Types of atheism
Although the concept is clear, nuances can be accepted and perceived within it. For this reason, different classifications and typologies have emerged to distinguish the degree or type of atheism.
Philosophers and professors Michael Martin and Antony Flew distinguished between positive and negative atheism:
- Positive atheism: It is the type of atheism that denies the existence of God and is positioned against all religions. The human being does not depend on any higher entity, and when he dies so does his consciousness. He does not travel to any mystical place.
- Negative atheism: It is a position closer to agnosticism. It is not based so much on affirming the nonexistence of God. Negative atheism slightly leaves the door open for the divine figure to exist, but in their life and in their daily actions they do not believe in it. And even if it existed, they would not rule or submit to it.
The author George Smith makes another typology of atheism, which for him is also divided into two categories: implicit and explicit atheism.
- Explicit atheism: It is the position adopted by the atheist after consciously reflecting on the existence or not of God. After trying to demonstrate his evidence and realizing that it does not exist, he takes this position. That is to say, it is a thoughtful and justified way of not believing in God.
- Implicit atheism: The idea of god is rejected, but not as in the previous case, in this category the atheist does not even care about it. For if you believe it does not exist, why should you worry about it or investigate divinity?
Atheism in Marxism
Marxism (and its derived ideologies) is the great atheist ideology. Traditionally, religious beliefs have been linked to political ideologies and forms of government. Marxism breaks with it. He considers that religion is yet another way in which men are alienated, exercising a relationship of power and submission between the religious leader and the parishioners or followers of the doctrine.
This is demonstrated when, in 1922, the Bolshevik leader Lenin decreed the expropriation of the assets of the Orthodox Church in favor of the people and the revolution. And by the way, end the institution, since it has traditionally had great power and influence. But it is with Stalin when the great persecution against this sector is carried out, assassinating and exiling the members of the Church to concentration camps.
In Mao's China, during the Cultural Revolution, persecution and repression against Buddhist members and members of other religions also took place. As well as the destruction of temples, monasteries, and any religious building.
As we can see, political atheism has not always entailed respect for those who do process the faith.
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