The penal code is a document that brings together a set of imperative norms that regulate behaviors that constitute crimes and their penalties.
Each country has a criminal code that regulates the criminal behavior of natural and legal persons and the penalties that such behavior entails. The usual content of criminal codes is to collect the regulation on minor and serious crimes and the form of graduation of their sentences, as well as security measures.
Both natural and legal persons can be tried by reason of the penal code.
The penal code is essential to understand criminal law. That is, the rules that regulate crimes and their penalties. The fact that it is criminal law means that it is public law. These are relationships that not only concern the people who commit or suffer the crime, but it is an action contrary to public order and, therefore, must be prosecuted by the public powers.
The penal code is usually divided into two parts, one general and one special. The general part deals with criminal theory and the special part contains crimes and their penalties.
Crimes contemplated in the penal code
Some of these crimes are:
- Against life.
- Against physical integrity.
- Crimes against freedom.
- Torture or crimes against moral integrity.
- Crimes against sexual freedom and sexual indemnity.
- Failure to provide relief.
- Crimes against privacy, own image and inviolability of the home.
- Against honor
- Crimes against family relationships.
- Against the patrimony and socioeconomic order.
- Crimes related to industrial and intellectual property.
- Corporate crimes.
Types of penalties
The types of penalties are divided into:
- Main penalties
- Prison sentences: They are deprived of liberty and are the most serious and a consequence of the most serious crimes.
- Fines: They have a pecuniary nature and are a consequence of the slightest crimes.
- Permanent location: It restricts the mobility of a person forcing him to stay in a certain place.
- Accessory penalties
- Deprivation of any public office.
- Deprivation of any administrative license.
- Disqualification from holding a position temporarily.
- Prohibition of approaching or approaching the victim.
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