Civil Code


The civil code is a document that brings together a set of imperative rules that regulate relationships between individuals, legal entities, public or private in the private world.

Each country has a civil code that regulates the private relations of its citizens. The usual content of these codes is to collect rules on family relationships, the right of the person, obligations, contracts, rights over things, etc.

This set of rules is essential to understand civil law, since its laws regulate private relationships between subjects. The fact that it is civil law means that it is private law. They are relationships that only concern the people who have that contract or that family relationship and are not in the public interest.

Some civil codes may also contain some regulation for the commercial sphere, but there is usually a specialized code for this matter even though it belongs to civil law.

Matters regulated in the civil code

These subjects are:

  • Births, filiation, adoption and guardianship.
  • People capacity.
  • Right of the people.
  • Types of contracts.
  • Types of obligations.
  • Ways to acquire the property.
  • Property and its modifications.
  • Successions.
  • Marriage.
  • International right.
  • Civil liability.
  • Legal sources and application of the regulations.

Function of the civil code

The civil code has a fundamental function when regulating the private relations of the subjects of law, but it is a subsidiary norm. This means that if there is a rule that regulates a certain field more specifically, then the code is relegated to the background.

In the legal field, the most common codes are civil, criminal and commercial. The norms that gather labor, administrative or procedural regulations do not have a general code as, on the other hand, do civil and criminal law.

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