Organizational commitment refers to the commitment, worth the redundancy, that an employee has with an organization of which he is a part. That is, the affinity that an employee presents with your company, as well as with its objectives.
Organizational commitment begins to gain relevance for the academy after the publication of the study carried out by Lodahl and Kejner, in 1965. After the publication of this study, organizational commitment has been a fundamental field of study in the world of economics. the company. This is usually closely related to employee motivation, since, in a way, motivation is linked to organizational commitment. If an employee is not motivated, in this context, they might not be committed to your organization.
In this sense, other authors define this concept as the psychological identification of an individual with the organization in which he carries out his professional career.
In turn, for authors such as Michael Porter, it supposes the degree of acceptance that an employee presents with respect to the goals and values of the company, as well as the desire of the employee himself to continue performing his functions within said company.
Organizational commitment theory
Although their study encompasses numerous theories, we could say that, so far, the most accepted model by the academy is the one published by Meyer and Allen in the 1990s.
According to the publication of the authors Meyer and Allen in 1991, organizational commitment is divided into three different types of commitment.
In this sense, we talk about the following:
- Regulatory commitment (moral obligation): It is the responsibility of the employee to correspond with the company, in gratitude to it for the benefits obtained.
- Affective commitment (desire): It is the responsibility that the individual presents to correspond with his company, due to his emotional satisfaction with it.
- Continuation commitment (necessity): It is the responsibility presented by an employee, who does not want to lose his job and wants to continue in the company.
So far, this model, as we said, has been the most accepted by the academy. An explanatory model that defines the three types of commitments that, under the consideration of the authors, exist.
Variables that influence organizational commitment
There are numerous variables that, in a certain way, condition the organizational commitment that an employee has with your company.
Among the best known variables, Allen and Meyer consider that there are personal variables that, such as gender, age or education, affect this commitment.
On the other hand, there are another series of variables, which other authors, such as Harrison and Hubbard, define as situational variables. A series of variables that are divided into two different types: characteristics of the job and characteristics of the organization or company.
- Characteristics of the work: Motivation with the task to be carried out, commitment of colleagues or work environment, among others.
- Characteristics of the organization: Company management, leadership of the board, company values, among others.
How to encourage organizational commitment?
We must know that this commitment is not something that arises spontaneously, but is constantly trained. For this reason, here are some methods to encourage this commitment among employees.
Among these methods, the following points should be highlighted:
- Promote a good work environment.
- Create a good work culture.
- Have good communication between management and employees.
- Have effective, efficient and continuous communication with the team.
- Encourage the participation and interaction of the individual.
- Encourage and drive innovation.
- Leaving hierarchical structures aside.
- Promote horizontal structures.
- Delegation of tasks.
- Offer of incentives.
- To promote teamwork.
Importance of organizational commitment
Organizational commitment is a fundamental element to study in the business world. This commitment is fundamental, since it is shown as a very important aspect within an organization.
In this sense, we speak that when there is a greater organizational commitment, in the same way, there is also a greater commitment of the employee with the goals of the company, as well as a more efficient performance in their functions and the achievement of said achievements.
Advantages of organizational commitment
Owning a company in which the employees have a great organizational commitment brings many advantages to the employer over their competitors. Employee engagement can promote things like productivity or efficiency.
In this sense, there are aspects that, such as absenteeism or staff turnover in the company, are reduced when the company has a high degree of organizational commitment.
Likewise, other variables such as performance, satisfaction and employee adaptation, in the same way, benefit from greater organizational commitment.
For this reason, some of the advantages of a high degree of organizational commitment within a company or institution are exposed:
- Increased productivity.
- Increased effectiveness and efficiency.
- Improves the work environment.
- Encourage teamwork.
- Improves the profitability of the company.
- The conflict resolution process is simpler.
- Employees are more involved with the goals of the company.
Thus, it can be concluded by saying that organizational commitment does not represent any disadvantage for the organization itself.