Pollution is the presence of elements or substances that are harmful to human health or life in general. It can affect water, land, air or other components of the environment in which humans or other organisms live.

Pollution is an alteration or degradation of the environment and its components. It has a negative effect on health and biodiversity. It can cause serious diseases to humans, extinction of species and a general imbalance on the planet.

Causes of pollution

The most important cause of pollution is human action. Among the main factors we have production with technologies that leave waste in the environment, excessive consumption, overexploitation of resources, and the lack of control over the emission of noise, magnetic waves, radiation or other negative externalities.

Effects of contamination

Pollution can have the following effects:

  • Death of people: It is estimated that about 2 million people could die each year from air pollution.
  • Diseases that affect humans, animals and flowers.
  • Species extinction.
  • Desertification: It has as a consequence the loss of crops along with the migration of populations.
  • Genetic mutations: This is to adapt to altered environments
  • Anomalous meteorological phenomena: Floods, storms, floods, etc., out of the ordinary.

Types of pollution

According to the affected element, below we see four types of contamination:

  • Atmospheric: It refers to the emissions of toxic gases that affect the atmosphere.
  • From Water: Related to wastes, chemicals and other foreign agents in the water.
  • From the Soil: It affects the land, generally caused by agricultural and livestock production.
  • Acoustics: Refers to the existence of decibels, above the level considered normal or allowed.

Polluting elements

There are various polluting elements. Here are four of them:

  • Chemicals: Chemical compounds or derivatives of natural origin or made by man.
  • Nuclear radiation: Radioactive emissions.
  • Electromagnetic radiation: Radiation of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Microorganisms: Living organisms.

Effects of Pollution on the Economy

Pollution not only has detrimental effects on life but also on the economy. According to an OECD study, it could cost $ 2.6 trillion a year, or 1% of global GDP, by 2060. Estimated costs are related to medical expenses, job loss due to illness, and decreased health care. agricultural production.

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