A dogma is a principle or belief that is considered as absolute, irrefutable truth, and is established as the basis for any field of knowledge.

A dogma serves as a starting point in the study of any discipline, since they are the foundations on which one works and investigates. It is a term that extends to all areas, etymologically it comes from the Greek and its meaning is thought, principle or doctrine.

Although it is used in many disciplines, its most used sense is in the religious one, a dogma in this area is the principle by which the rest of the doctrine is governed.

Religious dogmas

For the different monotheistic religions, the main dogma that backs up their faith is the existence of God, the existence of a supreme, powerful being that governs the universe and to whom they are accountable. But beyond this premise, each religion is governed by a greater number of dogmas.

Different Catholic sources establish that the main dogmas of the Catholic religion are 44, and they are classified into eight different groups:

  1. Dogmas about God.
  2. Dogmas about Jesus Christ.
  3. Dogmas about the creation of the world.
  4. Dogmas about the human being.
  5. Marian dogmas.
  6. Dogmas about the Pope and the Church.
  7. Dogmas on the sacraments.
  8. Dogmas about the last things.

Islam does not have recognized dogmas like the Catholic Church, but we can accept as such its five pillars: declaration of faith, prayer, fasting in Ramadan, Zakat and the pilgrimage to Mecca. In addition, the Koran can also be considered as dogma, since it is its sacred book and considered as the word of God, through the revelations that Muhammad experienced at the hands of the archangel Gabriel.

Dogmas in the social sciences

As we have seen before, dogma applies mainly to religion, but it is also used for social sciences, and of course for political ideologies. Although the investigations are tried to be carried out from a neutral and objective point of view, the predispositions of the researcher and the theories and studies they carry out, give rise to the use and establishment of a multitude of dogmas.

Dogmas, as we said before, are a series of immovable principles, and in social sciences we are going to see as examples some of the dogmas that govern the main economic theories.

Economic liberalism

  1. The free market presupposes the equilibrium between supply and demand, adjusting prices based on this equilibrium.
  2. Contractual freedom must be guaranteed, the company and the worker must freely agree on the clauses that regulate their activity.
  3. State intervention in the economy generates inefficiencies in the distribution of resources.
  4. Savings and investment incentives.
  5. Maximum reduction of taxes.

Economic interventionism

  1. The State must provide legislation that regulates the activity between employer and worker.
  2. Establishment of subsidies to specific companies or sectors.
  3. The State can intervene in the supply through the fixing of prices.
  4. Nationalization of companies.
  5. Economic protectionism.

Looking at the examples presented, assuming one or another economic ideology would imply assuming the dogmas associated with these theories.

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