Federalism is a model of political and territorial organization based on the coexistence and administrative coordination between different territories of different cultures dependent on a central power that derives their powers.
Through federalism it is possible to carry out the economic, political, and social union of numerous and diverse territories in a single state of a confederal nature, respecting its different nuances and casuistry from a legal, economic and political point of view.
A federal state must act as a political unit despite basing its structure on the heterogeneous conglomeration of its participants. This means that, although there are individual interests for each of the territories that comprise it, in turn there are common objectives and equal rights and opportunities.
Origin of the concept of federalism
Usually the adoption of this political model responds to tradition or the history of the territories since their creation.
In a way, Greece is considered the first federal state in antiquity, made up of a multitude of city-states with independent laws and systems but grouped under the Greek flag in areas such as politics or warfare.
Main purpose of federalism
The creation of countries under the umbrella of federalism responds to the political and organizational needs of integrating its different parts into the same state regulatory framework, advocating plurality and the convergence of their institutions.
Along with this, there is another need for union between various communities to achieve a series of economic and social objectives, as well as to respond to historical identities or nationalities.
Notable features of federalism
Despite the existence of a wide variety of federal political and territorial models, they all tend to share a series of factors to take into account:
- The union of communities that are members of a federal state is based on the creation of common institutions for all of them, in the form of administrative and government bodies, judicial entities and a shared legislative framework (for example, through a national constitution)
- Each of the territories has a certain level of self-government, especially in powers such as social, ecological, fiscal or monetary policies depending on the degree of integration defined by the state.
- Seeks the greatest possible decentralization of power, attending to the diversity and specific needs of each of the places and their citizens
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