Chemical industry


The chemical industry deals with extracting and processing materials to transform them into products, through the application of chemical procedures.

Certainly, they are economic activities and processes that convert raw materials using chemical means to transform them into products. The production of products is done on a massive scale. It is intended that the products produced are of good quality and that the procedure used damages the environment as little as possible.

As a result, the chemical processes that are applied for the conversion of the raw material are very careful. They are first carefully studied and analyzed in laboratories. They then go through various tests until they can be applied massively and on a large scale in the industry.

Chemical industry

Types of chemical procedures

The chemical procedures that can be used in the chemical industry are:

1. Extraction

Undoubtedly, this procedure makes it possible to separate compounds by means of solvents. Extraction is a technique that allows the separation of a compound in a mixture that can be liquid or solid. It is widely used in chemical laboratories.

In fact, for the process to be successful, the solvent used must have different solubility than the elements of the original mixture. As examples we can mention the extraction of salt from salt water. It could also be the extraction of all the minerals found in oil.

2. Processing

It is the procedure in which the compounds are processed to achieve the proposed objective. Generally those elements are incorporated in the final products.

3. Transformation

While, in the transformation process, the elements are converted into products that come to have characteristics different from the original ones, all this is achieved through chemical reactions.

Chemical industry

Types of chemical industry

Obviously, the chemical industry can use a large number of materials that are used to turn them into products.

These materials can usually be of natural origin or what is known as raw materials. The raw materials can be of animal, vegetable or mineral origin.

Of course, other materials used are obtained from the processing of natural resources and are known as synthetic or artificial materials.

Based on the type of materials used in the chemical industry, it can be divided into three types.

1. Basic or primary chemical industry

Specifically, the basic chemical industry uses raw materials or resources in their natural state, which transforms and converts them into intermediate products. These intermediate products can later be used as raw materials that are used in other industries.

They are part of the basic or primary chemical industry:

  • Petrochemical: It is the industry that produces all petroleum derivatives.
  • Metallurgy: This industry specializes in the extraction and processing of metals.
  • Ammonium and sulfuric acid industry: Produces a reagent that can then be used to produce explosives and fertilizers.

2. Chemical transformation or secondary industry

Similarly, the transformation industry is the industry that uses as raw materials the intermediate products produced by the basic or primary chemical industry. These intermediate products are transformed and become products for use or consumption to satisfy a need.

It should be noted that the products generated in this industry reach the market for their final consumption. However, some of these products can be processed by the tertiary chemical industry.

Some of the products obtained in this industry are glass, plastic, detergents, paints, colorants; among others we can mention.

3. Fine or tertiary chemical industry

Naturally, the tertiary industry produces more refined products both in its research process and during production. The level of refinement allows them to be more elaborate and sophisticated products. Some examples are biotech, biopharmaceutical, and agrochemical products.

Finally, we can affirm that the chemical industry is one of the branches of the industry that has evolved the most. Since the human being has learned to process and transform raw materials, managing to produce materials and products never seen before. All this process is achieved with the application of chemical procedures.

The chemical industry plays a very important role in the economic development of any country. But unfortunately it can cause environmental damage. Since it consumes a large amount of raw materials and energy resources. In addition, it produces a large amount of toxic waste and polluting waste.

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