Maoism is an existing trend in communism that originated in the People's Republic of China and the main dominator of that territory at the political and ideological level after its cultural revolution.
From the hand of its main ideologue, Mao Zedong, a revisionism of the initial Marxism was carried out from a very philosophical and ideological point of view, leaving behind the scientific approach established by the communist manifesto.
In addition, Mao based his observation on the Chinese agricultural peasantry as the driving force of the country without establishing the class struggle as essential, since he considered the bourgeois and business sector as a necessary part of society that could be redirected towards the revolution.
This socio-political and economic theory shares a large number of aspects with other derivations of communism, socialism and Marxism, although to a large extent it has acquired a relevant meaning of its own since its creation and expansion in China.
Prior to its prominent role and dominance in the Chinese political system throughout the decades after the Chinese revolution, Maoism already coexisted with other markedly communist tendencies.
Although its characteristics and proposals have been valued by other international left movements, this movement cannot be understood without its identification and location in China. In fact, it forms the guide and structure of the Chinese Communist Party.
Maoism as a distinctive communist current
One of the main features to highlight of Maoism is its relevant contrast with other more widespread tendencies of communism, such as Marxism-Leninism.
While Marxism bases its principle on the struggle of the working class and the construction of a strong and centralized state, Mao used the mainly agricultural Chinese people as the basis for the application of his ideas in the formation of a more decentralized state in need of industrialization. .
While the latter movement evolved and adapted to the paradigm shifts experienced by the Soviet Union throughout the 20th century, the Chinese Maoist movement firmly aligned itself with communist roots shared with the Russian Bolshevik movement, primarily.
This can be seen reflected in the different conception of the principles of the movement, translating that while Russian communism promoted by Lenin or Stalin was based on historical materialism and the Soviet experience, Mao defended the need for revolution from a more ideological, philosophical approach. and idealistic characteristic of original communism.
His vision was reinforced after the death of Stalin and the criticism of communist thinkers to the Russian drift of the movement, marked by the impoverishment of Russia and the harshness of its strict political system.
Maoism during the last decades
In recent decades, the more open economic drift of China towards international trade has caused the views of Maoism regarding the economic management of the country to be adapted.
However, in the rest of the areas, this country retains the dominance of the Maoist guidelines, leading analysts to define the country's politics as communist in politics and market in economic terms.