Hate is a negative feeling for which someone, thing or phenomenon is not tolerated. Also, if it is a person, you want bad experiences to happen to them. If it is a thing or phenomenon, you want it to be limited or not to exist.
Hatred is one of the many feelings with negative meaning that human beings experience. It is probably the most evil, counterproductive and destructive of all. Since, when you hate someone or a group, you wish their bad, that they do badly in their life and experience negative feelings and experiences. Hatred, if externalized and materialized in concrete actions on certain individuals, leads to conflicts. On a macro level it can even degenerate into war and civil conflict.
Hatred can also be generated against animals, objects or facts. Such as insects, weapons or rain. This implies, on the part of the hater, wanting the elimination or limitation of those things. It is usually derived from bad personal experiences. In the specific cases mentioned above, it may be due to an allergy to mosquitoes; death of a family member in an armed conflict; or getting wet because you walk to all the places.
Is hatred rational or irrational?
Human beings have rational and irrational feelings. The former have a logical explanation, supported by reason. On the other hand, we experience irrational feelings without having a reasoned explanation, simply, and without knowing why, our mind experiences them. Hatred can be experienced in an irrational way, when we do not have solid arguments about what we hate, our mind simply translates it causing us that feeling.
In some cases we can confuse rational hatred with irrational, how does it happen? If our hatred is built in a thoughtful way but on wrong premises. As for example racial hatred, it is usually built on biased premises or misconceptions. A concrete example is that of the Nazi holocaust, the German leaders thought that the fault of the ills that the country suffered was the Jews and this legitimized their extermination.
Hate can also be rational, if it is well premeditated and we base it on objective reasons (which does not mean that it is morally right or wrong). For example, if a drunk driver has run over and killed a family member of ours, if we hate that person, we do so influenced by specific and objective facts. This vision of hatred as a rational feeling is also based on the fact that the decisions that are made derived from it towards the person who provokes it are well calculated and considered. That is, since hatred itself is irrational, the actions we carry out derived from that feeling can be rational.
Hate and ideologies
Many times, we build our ideology more based on what we don't like than what we do. Or we form it based on the fact that we have to fight ideas that are the ones that make ours impossible. Or that our personal or collective misfortune is due to other people. When these claims go to an extreme, we can say that our ideology and political preferences have been shaped by hatred of something or someone.
The Marxist ideology is formed on the basis of the idea that the history of humanity is based on the class struggle, in which the owners of the means of production exert an exploitation on the workers. Thus, the basis of Marxist ideology and its derivations are formed on the idea of hatred of the boss. Considering that their wealth has been formed thanks to the suffering and oppression of the workers. Thus, we can say that Marxism hates the businessman and, therefore, tries to put an end to him; and this is what its authors state through their writings.
The fascist ideology does not escape this component of hatred either, since they identify enemies of the state and the nation and fight them with prison and death. During the Franco regime, Freemasons, Liberals and Communists were considered enemies of the regime, attributing to them the conspiracy to end Spain and its traditional values. That hatred was what fueled his persecution.
Theoretically, it is democratic ideologies that allow and tolerate all people and ideologies. Under the consideration that all of them have a place in the political and social system.
Emile Bruneau experiment
Emile Bruneau, a renowned neuroscientist, carried out a series of experiments in order to find the explanation for hatred and how it could be overcome. It found that when a person read negative news that affected their own group, certain regions of the brain were affected. But this did not happen when the evil was experienced by other outside groups.
He also noted that many of the arguments supporting hatred were preconceived or based on prejudice. And this was confirmed when he tried to expose the hypocrisies that sustained this sentiment.He did so by putting a video to Americans who hated Muslims, in which a Muslim woman explained the danger of generalizations. He commented that thinking that all Arabs support the terrorist acts of the Islamic State is like blaming all white Americans for the actions of the Ku Klux Klan.
He also stated, through interviews, that what makes these people change their minds about their unfounded hatred is the personal treatment received by those they hated. One of the cases he found was that of an ex-convict with tattooed swastikas, when he was released from prison by a Jewish carpenter hired him and, obviously, paid him his full salary. This fact of being treated well by someone who, a priori, would not have to do so, made him change his mind.