Physical person


A natural person or natural person is any human being who, by virtue of being one, has a series of legal rights and obligations towards society.

The definition of natural person was born with the evolution of the right itself over the years and the creation of a concept of individual and citizen. Another way of defining this type of person in the field of law is as a natural or real person. It is the law that establishes the regulatory framework of the rights and obligations of natural persons.

Individuals have the ability to develop commercial, political and social activities within their social environment, using the legislation to defend their rights and interests as an individual.

Alternatively, there is the concept of a legal person, which grants certain rights and obligations to a person or group of people. For example, a public limited company is a legal person, which has certain rights and obligations in the same way that a natural person might have them. It is possible that a natural person can in turn be considered as a legal person. An example of this is the existence of sole proprietorships and the appearance of modalities such as the self-employed worker.

Characteristics of a natural person

As has been said, natural persons have a series of rights and obligations that define them as such:

  • Carrying out economic activities in a regulated manner and in exchange for a consideration.
  • Acquisition of debt securities, assumption of credits and loans ...
  • Tax declaration of your income or assets as a natural person. A striking case is the existence of taxes such as personal income tax.
  • Right to recognition by the State of health rights, voting and other social benefits such as Social Security.

It is necessary to indicate that the rights and obligations of the natural person are acquired in the same birth. In other words, the mere fact of being born implies having this legal recognition in practically all the legal systems of the world.

At the same time, the loss of this series of characteristics is established with the death of each person.

Other characteristics of natural persons

Individuals can contract new commitments and rights, according to each specific legal framework.

In this sense, natural persons are usually defined through the possession of one or more nationalities, an officially recognized and registered name, their marital status or the assets that they have and legally declare.

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