A project is the planning and execution of a series of actions that, being its aim to achieve a certain objective, are carried out.
So, a project is the idea of a certain task, for which we establish the way in which it will be carried out.In this way, the project must collect a planning of the set of activities, as well as the way to carry them out. .
Finally, the project must also include details of the set of resources and means necessary to carry it out.
A project can be of an infinite number of types. You should not always maintain a specific structure.
Although the definition is the one mentioned above, there is no consensus that shows an exact and generally accepted definition of what a project is.
Among the types of projects, there are an infinity of types. Depending on their purpose, content, and funding, projects can be of one type or another.
Depending on your financing:
- Mixed or subsidized.
Depending on its content:
- Production of goods or services.
- Computer scientist.
Depending on the complexity:
Depending on its purpose:
- Research or academics.
Elements of a project
The project, in order to be considered, must include a series of elements that make up a good project. For this, the Project Management Institute (PMI) defines which elements are vital to correctly present our project.
Among these elements, the following should be highlighted:
- Time: The period that the project will last.
- Scope: The total impact that the project will have on society.
- Cost: The cost of the resources needed to get the project out.
- Organization and planning: The activities to be developed, as well as the deadlines, to launch the project.
- Management of stakeholders or interested parties: Manage the interests of interested parties as shareholders or participants.
- Communication: How the communication is going to develop, as well as the information flows.
- Assignment of tasks: Distribution of tasks and functions.
- Results: The measurement of the objectives that we hope to obtain from the project.
Phases of a project
The phases of the projects that stand out the most are included in the following list:
- Initial evaluation: An exhaustive analysis is carried out on the project that we are going to undertake, as well as everything that could affect said project.
- Planning: We plan how we are going to do it, as well as the costs, etc.
- Start-up: We execute the project, applying the planning of the previous step.
- Final evaluation: Once the project is finished, we evaluate the results obtained.
- Conclusions: We contrast the final evaluation with the expected results, calculate deviations and proceed to draw the final conclusions.
Thus, the steps described are included in the work plan established by the PMI.
The Project Management Institute
The Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded in 1969 and is the world's leading organization dedicated to the direction and management of projects. Thus, PMI is the largest non-profit organization and is made up of professionals from the five continents. Its headquarters are in Pennsylvania, USA and it has more than 200 chapters in more than 125 countries.
His job is to establish the standards for project management, as well as the task of globally managing the certification process for project management professionals. Likewise, all of its procedures have been recognized by the most relevant governmental and private entities.
The objectives of the PMI include the following:
- Promote professionalism in project management.
- Contribute to the quality and scope of project management.
- Encourage the appropriate global application of project management for social benefit.
- Provide a recognized forum for the free exchange of ideas, applications and project management solutions generated among the members of the institute and other interested or involved with the subject.
- Identify and promote the fundamentals of project management and advance the body of knowledge to successfully conduct projects.
* These are the objectives that have been extracted from the official PMI statutes.