A dry port is an internal terminal connected to one or more seaports by an intermodal transport system.
Rail transport is the preferred type of transport to connect these types of facilities. However, it can also be connected by another means of land transport. The greater the available land connections, the greater the development of the dry port.
On the other hand, these ports can be categorized by their distance from the sea port. These are near, midrange, or distant ports. In this sense, it will depend on the available space and the development capacity of the logistics system.
Dry port characteristics
Some of the features these ports have are the following:
- It is connected through an intermodal transport system with sea ports.
- Provides customs services.
- Document management.
- The means of loading the merchandise must be capable of being transported in multimodal transport. Par excellence is the container.
- There should be no load break.
- It has storage capacity and merchandise distribution service.
- Container maintenance.
- Provides containerization, decontainerization and cargo consolidation services.
- It offers functions that add value to the merchandise.
Importance of the dry port
With the increase in volume and foreign trade transactions, more space and personnel are required to process cargo. Therefore, these facilities arise from the need to reduce congestion at sea ports.
Likewise, it allows to expand the area of influence of a seaport, that is to say, what is known as hinterland. Also, it strengthens the supply chains of the seaport. On the other hand, it allows port services to be brought closer to customers.
Advantages and disadvantages of the dry port
The existence of dry ports provides facilities for foreign trade activities. Some of the advantages that can be considered are the following:
- It improves the import and export services of the sea port.
- Source of employment that could not provide an extension of the seaport due to spatial limitations.
- Intermodal transportation can lower transportation and logistics costs for companies.
- Increases access of SMEs to customs services.
- By operational agility, you can reduce delivery times of goods.
- An economic virtuous circle is created between the development of the region and the dry port.
- Internal terminals connected by rail:
- They reduce the environmental impact of the transport of merchandise.
- They decongest the roads.
On the other hand, some of the disadvantages that can be considered of these ports are:
- The development of a region can affect the quality of life of the surrounding regions. This, with the displacement of productive factors to the benefited region.
- The creation of these facilities requires high initial investments that can raise the level of taxes.
- It requires a high level of coordination with ground transportation.
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