Branches of sociology


The branches of sociology are the different types in which human behavior can be classified when it lives in community, according to its causes and meanings.

That is, the branches of sociology are the types in which the analysis of society can be subdivided by specific object of study and its effects on it.

Branches of sociology by type of study

Individuals living in a group share certain behaviors. However, there are specific differences in them that have an effect on how they act. It is therefore necessary to make distinctions.

Likewise, there are foreign elements that affect you. Therefore, it is necessary to study the reactions that lead individuals to make their own decisions. Which is briefly described below.

  • Sociology of education: Analyzes the link between educational aspects with the environment and the needs of individuals living in the community, in order to improve them.
  • Political Sociology: Analyzes the relationships and effects of the existence of institutionalized and legitimate power for individuals living in community and of the latter with figures of power.
  • Urban sociology: It studies the way of life and the organization of individuals in community within cities.
  • Rural Sociology: Analyzes the structure and behavior of individuals in the community who live outside the cities.
  • Sociology of work: Examines the relationships between individuals within their paid work. An example of this are the conflicts that occur within companies and the solutions in that context.
  • Economic sociology: It studies how the activities of production, consumption, exchange, distribution of goods and services occur, in a social context.
  • Criminal sociology: Investigates the conduct of people who commit crimes and the collective elements involved in it.
  • Sociology of knowledge: It studies the interrelationships between the individual and collective knowledge of people living in a community and the effects they have throughout history.
  • Family sociology: It is responsible for studying the behavior of individuals living in marriage, divorce, procreation, individual lives with blood kinship within their life cycle.
  • Sociology of communication: Analyzes the processes of message transmission within an economic, cultural and social context. Which arises from verbal, written, non-verbal, graphic and even symbolic language.
  • Historical sociology: It focuses on the evolution of relationships between individuals living in community, both with each other and with the institutions that have been generated over time.
  • Sociology of religion: Study the way in which the creed influences the behavior of individuals and collective decisions.
  • Industrial Sociology: Examines the functional labor relations of an organization.
  • Legal sociology: It studies the causes that generate the need for the formation of laws by the State, as well as the effects that the application of laws has on the social dynamics of individuals.
  • Sociology of art: Interprets the symbolic and intellectual expressions of social, cultural and political phenomena, which show the features, structure and context in different times of humanity.
  • Sociology of culture: Analyzes the knowledge, customs and experiences that portray the behavior of individuals who live in community, over time.

There is also sociology explored from the way it is conceived and studied, such as:

  • Structuralism: It is responsible for analyzing sociology in an integral way as a set of elements.
  • Analytical: Examines society as a complex system that is dependent on the interrelation between individuals.
  • Constructivism: Explore behavior from the customs, perceptions and beliefs of society.

Branches of sociology by methodology

On the other hand, there is also the exploration of society from the way of finding findings of community life, from which it is possible to find relevant information that leads to the study of behavior, both current and historical and even to be able to propose theories about how the behavior might be in the future. Each of them and a brief explanation are mentioned below.

  • Quantitative method: It makes use of data or numerical values ​​that allow finding answers to questions such as, for example ↓

When? How often? Where? Since when?

Thanks to technological advances, it is possible to have Big Data, which allows having a greater number of data, more specific and more precise. What facilitates the conclusions when making use of this type of method.

  • Qualitative method: Seeks to find cause-effect relationships, for example what situations or actions have caused certain behavior. That is why it seeks to find answers to questions such as, for example:

How? How? Why? So that? By whom? For whom it is?

  • Comparative method: With this method, the existence of correlation between two or more phenomena is sought. In this case, the questions you intend to solve are, for example:

If situation X occurs, then will situation W present itself?

If N intervene in a specific situation, then will ΣN also intervene?

Importance of knowledge of the branches of sociology

Sociology is supported by disciplines that provide analysis tools that allow improving the ability to study social phenomena and contrast lines of theoretical analysis, models and variables.

For example, the disciplines in which it helps to reach conclusions are: history, ethics, geography, psychology, economics, politics, anthropology, philosophy and demography.

This is how sociology includes many areas of knowledge and it is therefore necessary to classify it, in order to:

  • Understand the behavior of individuals in the present tense, taking into account an analytical review of history. As well as making use of historical databases, which show a relationship between a cause and an effect of the events that have lived.
  • Propose new reasoning, with the support of other disciplines. What allows to understand the social dynamics.
  • Design and apply methodologies that allow the development of lines of research to address social conflicts and their repercussions.
  • Explain megatrends and behavioral processes that provide useful information in demographic decision-making and social intervention mechanisms such as health programs, transportation programs, educational programs. As well as knowing which groups are socially neglected. And in this way have the ability to identify and seek inclusion and integration to improve their quality of life.
  • By understanding individual and societal behaviors, it will be possible to improve relationships between individuals, by generating empathy, reducing prejudices, promoting tolerance, understanding multiculturalism.

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