The revolution is a violent political change that takes place from below. The masses are the protagonists of change, carrying out the transformation of the state apparatus and of society as a whole.

The revolution is a process by which the mass takes power violently, instigated by the revolutionary leaders.

To speak of revolution it is essential that it be carried out from below. That is to say, that it is the common people who star in it. If it were not like that, we would not speak of a revolution, it would be something else, like a coup.

Regimes prior to the revolution have never been democracies, they have been undemocratic regimes such as monarchies, tyrannical regimes or colonies.

Duration of revolution

Basically there are three characteristics that explain the long duration of many of the regimes that are imposed after a revolution.

  • Suppression of powers independent of the Government, such as the Church or the economic elites. Destroying the powers that may be contrary to the new regime ensures its continuity.
  • Strong army. The army becomes an extension of the party, closely linked to the central government. Thus, coups d'état are avoided.
  • Creation of a political police. Thanks to bodies like the Russian Czech, the population can be controlled and opponents eliminated.

Phases of a revolution

Revolutions go through four phases:

  1. The weakness of the preceding government.
  2. Seizure of power by the radicals.
  3. Establishment of terror.
  4. Thermidor.

Revolution example

Taking as the basis of the analysis the French and Russian Revolutions, we observe how the four phases are happening.

The monarchy in France was wildly unpopular and had been in decline for many years. For its part, the Russian provisional government resulting from the elections, after the abdication of the Tsar, was very unstable. In the second stage, both revolutionary masses seize power. After that, they establish terror in order to annihilate political opponents and rivals, sending a repressive message to the population. Finally, it turns, little by little, to less turbulent and bloody and more stable times.

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