The mercantile company is the legal personality that is created to start an economic activity for profit.
In this sense, one or more individuals are grouped according to commercial legislation, thus becoming partners to carry out an economic and exploitation activity with the ultimate goal of obtaining benefits.
The main reason for establishing a commercial company is to create a relationship between the partners from which each one can contribute the resources according to their capacity, as well as the skills, knowledge and know-how of each one.
Characteristics of the trading company
The main characteristics of the mercantile company are:
- It has its own legal personality, different from the partners that make it up. Consequently, its activity is subject to rights and obligations with the Administration.
- It has a central business headquarters called tax domicile. This is the place with respect to which the tax obligations must be answered. Likewise, the company may have attached offices, for example, in other countries, called branches.
- They are distinguished by a denomination or company name that is, simply, the official name of the company.
- It must be registered in the corresponding registries by public deed.
Types of commercial companies in the business world
The types of companies can be various depending on the organization of the economic activity, the relationship between the partners, the responsibility, the risk assumed and the corporate purpose of the same.
Next, we will see the classification and types of commercial companies:
- Limited company: Organization with limited liability to the contributed capital. It is divided into S.L. successive, whose capital is being deposited little by little, and a new company, incorporated electronically.
- Public limited company: Company with a more capitalist court and divided into aliquots.
- Collective partnership: Company name formed by several independent partners for the achievement of a specific purpose.
- Limited partnership: Society in which there are collective partners (who manage and respond unlimitedly to debts) and limited partners (those who do not have management functions and respond limited to the contributed capital).
- Labor society: Society in which the workers have the majority of the capital, which is distributed equitably.
- Cooperative society: Society of a social nature in which its members are grouped voluntarily and where there is democratic and egalitarian management of the same.
- Economic interest grouping: These are groups of several companies from different countries that come together to carry out a specific and finite task.
- Collective investment company: An investment company in which it is about raising money, assets and resources from various partners to invest in goods, assets and financial products.
Example of commercial company
Suppose that a group of farmers in a rural area of Colombia dedicated to the cultivation and commercialization of coffee decide to organize themselves to jointly negotiate with their clients, make investments, acquire financing, among other commercial decisions.
So these farmers decide to found a cooperative society where there is equal rights and obligations. Thus, decisions must be made considering an equal vote for each member.
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