Theology is the discipline that studies everything related to God, both his word and his deeds and his legacy.
Although its meaning is the study of the nature of God and its elements, characteristics, etc. in practice it extends to all aspects of religion in general. Regarding its etymology, theology comes from the Greek, and is formed theos, which means "god", and by logos which is "study". Literally, the term means study of God.
Theology has its origin in ancient Greece. Plato is the first thinker who coined the term and who made many reflections about the divine. It does not include a current theological idea, which attributes the creation of the universe to a higher being. But for him, divine is every living being, and each one of them holds different degrees of divinity depending on their approach to the world of ideas.
For Aristotle, the first philosophy, later called metaphysics, was theology. And its purpose was the most outstanding study of the Being, in addition to the study and cause of everything that exists.
Branches of theology
Theology extends to all religions. That is, they have all been studied and have sacred texts and other elements. But the predominant religion in terms of theology is Christian. And this has several branches of study, specifically four types:
- Fundamental theology: It is the branch of theology that is responsible for the investigation of the existence of God and divine facts, thus giving meaning to faith. It is to give credence to the entire divine theory. Fundamental theology, in modern times, served as a defense against the attacks of Protestantism and other revisions. With the passage of time, it has gone from trying by all means to convince those who did not believe in the Catholic faith to integrate and dialogue about the different points of view that are emerging.
- Dogmatic theology: It is the part of theology that is responsible for the officiality of the dogmas and postulates of the Church. Give more value to innate truths. That is, it places more value on dogmas than on religious experiences. After the Protestant reform, it served to formalize and emphasize the postulates of the Catholic faith.
- Spiritual theology: This type is dedicated to the testimonies of those who have lived religious experiences. The sacred writings are part of it, since they relate the experiences and events lived by the first representatives of the faith. The experiences of the saints are also relevant, since their experiences, experiences and testimonies are strictly related to faith.
- Pastoral theology: This is in charge of all relations between ecclesiastical institutions and parishioners. It does the communicative work of the Church, and it is its most practical facet, since it is in charge of preaching, the Eucharist, missions in conflictive and third world countries or areas, dealing with the elderly, disabled or in need of help, etc. It can be summed up as the practical facet of theology.
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