Theory of multiple intelligences


The theory of multiple intelligences certifies that there are eight types of intelligence, and not one in particular. In addition, it points out that each individual can have one or more intelligences according to this classification.

The theory of multiple intelligences is developed by Howard Gardner, a psychologist, researcher and professor at Harvard University.

According to this theory, it indicates that there is no unitary intelligence as such, but that there are several according to a series of cultural, biological and also historical factors. Therefore, there are different types of intelligence.

One of his best-known phrases is the one in which he indicates that "there are as many intelligences as there are problems."

This theory that he published in 1983, supposes a detailed analysis of human mental capacities, cognitive aspects and cataloging based on these studies of the different intelligences that, according to Gardner, exist.

In addition, in his theory he indicates that intelligence, although it has a certain genetic component, can be shaped and educated over the years since different situations, cultural and environmental aspects, among others, intervene. Which influence that it is something that can be modified and strengthened.

Types of intelligence according to the theory of multiple intelligences

Next we will see which are the multiple intelligences to which we are referring. Thus, these are the eight types of intelligence that Howard Gardner highlights:

  • Naturalistic intelligence: This type of intelligence indicates the ability to investigate, study and perceive the natural environment. Biologists would have this kind of intelligence. They perceive nature, animals, with great capacity and have abilities to do so much more developed than other individuals.
  • Linguistic intelligence: It is the ability to express language and communication with great richness. For example, this type of intelligence is typical of journalists, writers, and people who are related to the cultural field and communication.
  • Intrapersonal intelligence: The person who has this type of intelligence stands out for knowing himself more than most people. They develop a very high inner wisdom in relation to other individuals, and also tend to have greater self-control and self-esteem.
  • Interpersonal intelligence: This is the ability to relate to others in a more effective way. Empathy is one of the keys to this, in addition to the fact that individuals who have this type of more enhanced intelligence, tend to relate easily and effectively with other people, they have great social skills for it. The sum of interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence is what was later known as emotional intelligence, developed by Goleman. Gardner himself equated interpersonal intelligence with Goleman's emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is that which refers to the aptitudes and abilities that a person shows when regulating their feelings as well as those of the public to whom they are directed.
  • Musical intelligence: It is about the ability to create music, perceive it and express messages through it. This type of intelligence is typical of singers, musical authors, or musicians.
  • Logical-mathematical intelligence: In this type of intelligence, the ability to solve mathematical problems and formulas more easily than the rest stands out. A physicist or a mathematician has this intelligence very developed.
  • Kinesthetic body intelligence: This intelligence occurs in those people who usually work with their body, identify with each part and express themselves through it effectively. For example, a yoga or meditation teacher.
  • Spatial intelligence: It is the ability to perceive the environment and modify it optimally. An architect has a highly developed spatial intelligence.

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