Types of sovereignty
Depending on who exercises decision-making power in a given territory and in which areas they carry out this task, there are different types of sovereignty from an economic and socio-political point of view.
Throughout history, the very development of the concept and the evolution of territories throughout the world have led to the birth of different types of sovereignty applied to the reality of each society.
In this sense, to speak of different modalities of sovereignty is to take into account the disparate allocation of the powers of government, legislation and public administration of the countries, if this is concentrated in the entire population or in a single person or group of people. minor decision.
In the same way, it should be noted that sovereignty can be total or partial in relation to the areas of power and decision that are taken into account. From this it follows that sovereignty can be characterized as political or economic.
In the case of the current Spain, many decision-making capacities in economic or legislative matters are derived or facilitated to the European Union, for example. In that case, we speak of a modality of international sovereignty, typical of plurinational institutions.
Main categories in which the types of sovereignty are included
The historical evolution of the human being and of the societies in which they have developed their coexistence have been the main consequence of the creation of the different applications of sovereignty.
- State sovereignty. It is the legitimate guarantee of self-government and independence of a territory with respect to other countries. its violation often provokes diplomatic or military conflicts between nations.
- Individual sovereignty or elite minorities. There is a sovereign or a minority with relevant power that has the ability to direct a territory and the lives of its citizens directly. There are examples such as the figure of absolute kings in antiquity or the case of autocracies or dictatorships.
With the fall of the old regime and the emergence of the bourgeoisie, new, more inclusive conceptions of power in societies were given way. Phenomena such as the French Revolution helped with the birth of new concepts existing to date:
- National sovereignty. This model is based on the people exercising their sovereignty through representation under a legal framework or a constitution. In this way, it delegates its decision-making power to its political representatives in a formal way.
- Popular sovereignty. It is a renewal of the previous type, giving full power to the citizenry. This is in charge of decision-making and the composition of power bodies with a certain voluntary level of representation.
There are other modalities depending on the nature of each territory and the emphasis placed on certain sectors. This is the case, for example, of food sovereignty, a trend that advocates territorial power for the protectionism of its local agricultural producers against foreign producers, sovereignty regarding the management of certain natural resources such as oil, precious stones or other minerals. .
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