Technology transfer consists of the transfer of skills, technology, as well as knowledge between organizations. The purpose of this is the continuous transfer of technological advances that promote development.
Technology transfer, or technology transfer, is the process by which organizations transfer technology, skills, and knowledge to each other. These transfers are produced so that another series of organizations with fewer resources can access scientific advances in an easier and more accessible way. In this way, technology transfers allow the technological development of organizations, as well as the creation of value in their products and services.
Usually, a great generator of technology transfer are the government, research centers and universities. These, since they are focused on research, make continuous technology transfers to the private sector. Which takes advantage of all the advances to continue its improvement in the products and services offered. Technological transfers, in turn, are great generators of competitiveness. Hence, those countries that allocate the most capital to research also tend to be the most competitive.
Objectives of technology transfers
Although the main objective of this type of transfer is the transfer of knowledge for the continuous development of organizations. Technology transfers are a great contribution to society and organizations. Without technology transfers, development would be much slower and perhaps less effective, cheap and efficient.
However, technology transfers have various objectives, among which we could highlight:
- Generate value and competitiveness in companies.
- Promote the continuous development of organizations.
- Generate knowledge and new products and services.
- Promote research and development in centers and universities.
- Generate innovation and added value for the country.
- Attract investment to the country.
- Generate intellectual and industrial property.
Phases of the technology transfer process
In a process of technology transfer we can find ourselves with different phases. Since it requires a research process, this technology transfer occurs gradually, requiring adaptation and implementation that does not allow immediate effectiveness.
Thus, technology transfer is classified into eight phases:
- Discovery: Process by which a project is developed and an innovation is generated.
- Documentation: It is the phase in which the innovation is identified, as well as its results and advantages in the application.
- Evaluation: Phase in which the possible impact of the implementation of said discovery is evaluated, as well as the effects in practice.
- Protection: It is the phase in which the patent is generated. That is, where we develop intellectual or industrial property to ensure that plagiarism does not occur.
- Commercialization: Phase in which the patent is commercialized, trying to have it implanted and developed in a real case.
- License: Phase in which an agreement is reached with interested investors, with the aim of putting innovation and development into practice.
- Development: It is the phase in which the company, once it has the license, puts into practice and develops the result obtained from the research.
- Exploitation: It is the phase in which the new products or services produced through the implementation of research are marketed in the market and returns are generated.
Examples of technology transfer
The best examples of technology transfer occur in the United States. Large university projects in innovation centers such as MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) or Stanford University have ended up being implemented in technology companies resident in Silicon Valley.
The best example are the projects developed by companies such as Facebook or Google. Many innovations that these produce actually originate from these innovation centers. In this way, the universities generate projects financed, in many cases, by the companies themselves, in order to be subsequently implemented in the companies.
The smartphone (mobile phone), Ebay, GPS, as well as a number of other innovations are examples of technology transfers. This series of innovations were launched in universities and research centers, later implanted in the real market.Technology types